Application of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an environmentally sustainable option to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on plant growth and productivity. Bacteria isolated from rain-fed agriculture field soils in the Central Himalaya Kumaun region, India, were evaluated for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase. Those producing ACC deaminase in high amounts were evaluated for their potential to improve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant growth under irrigated and water-stress conditions in two glasshouse experiments. Some of the isolates also showed other plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, e.g., N2 fixation, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization; however, strains with higher ACC deaminase activity showed the greatest effects. These were Variovorax paradoxus RAA3; Pseudomonas spp. DPC12, DPB13, DPB15, DPB16; Achromobacter spp. PSA7, PSB8; and Ochrobactrum anthropi DPC9. In both simulated irrigated and water-stress conditions, a single inoculation of RAA3 and a consortium of DPC9 + DPB13 + DPB15 + DPB16 significantly improved wheat plant growth and foliar nutrient concentrations and caused significant positive changes in antioxidant properties compared with noninocu-lated plants especially under water stress. These findings imply that PGPB having ACC deaminase activity together with other PGP traits could potentially be effective inoculants to improve the growth of wheat plants in water-stressed rain-fed environments.
- 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase
- Antioxidant properties
- Foliar nutrients
- Plant-growth-promoting bacteria
- Water stress
- Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)