Objective To identify and critique tools for the assessment of Ca and/or dairy intake in adults, in order to ascertain the most accurate and reliable tools available. Design A systematic review of the literature was conducted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles reporting on originally developed tools or testing the reliability or validity of existing tools that measure Ca and/or dairy intake in adults were included. Author-defined criteria for reporting reliability and validity properties were applied. Setting Studies conducted in Western countries. Subjects Adults. Results Thirty papers, utilising thirty-six tools assessing intake of dairy, Ca or both, were identified. Reliability testing was conducted on only two dairy and five Ca tools, with results indicating that only one dairy and two Ca tools were reliable. Validity testing was conducted for all but four Ca-only tools. There was high reliance in validity testing on lower-order tests such as correlation and failure to differentiate between statistical and clinically meaningful differences. Results of the validity testing suggest one dairy and five Ca tools are valid. Thus one tool was considered both reliable and valid for the assessment of dairy intake and only two tools proved reliable and valid for the assessment of Ca intake. Conclusions While several tools are reliable and valid, their application across adult populations is limited by the populations in which they were tested. These results indicate a need for tools that assess Ca and/or dairy intake in adults to be rigorously tested for reliability and validity.
- Dietary assessment