Recent studies have greatly extended our understanding of the microbiota present in and on the human body. Here, advanced sequencing strategies have provided unprecedented analytical power. The important implications that the emerging data have for human health emphasize the need to intensify research in this area (D. A. Relman, Nature 486:194-195, 2012). It is already clear from these studies that the microbiotas characterized in different body locations of healthy individuals are both complex and diverse (The Human Microbiome Project Consortium, Nature 486:215-221). These studies also provide a point of contrast for investigations that aim to characterize the microbiota present in disease cond itions. In this regard, Madan et al.(mBio 3(4):e00251-12, 2012) monitored the development over time of microbiota in the oropharynges and feces of neonates with cystic fibrosis and explored the potential for interactions between these complex microbial systems.