Extended RAS mutations and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody survival benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Abstract

    Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) prolong survival in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) exon 2 wild-type tumors. Recent evidence has suggested that other RAS mutations (in exons 3 and 4 of KRAS and exons 2, 3 and 4 of a related gene, NRAS) may also be predictive of resistance. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating anti-EGFR mAbs that have assessed tumors for new RAS mutations. Tumors with the new RAS mutations were compared with both tumors without any RAS mutations and tumors with KRAS exon 2 mutations with respect to anti-EGFR treatment progressionfree survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) benefit. Results: Nine RCTs comprising a total of 5948 participants evaluated for both KRAS exon 2 and new RAS mutations met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 20% of KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumors harbored one of the new RAS mutations. Tumors without any RAS mutations (either KRAS exon 2 or new RAS mutations) were found to have significantly superior anti-EGFR mAb PFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.008) treatment effect compared with tumors with any of the new RAS mutations. No difference in PFS or OS benefit was evident between tumors with KRAS exon 2 mutations and tumors with the new RAS mutations. Results were consistent between different anti-EGFR agents, lines of therapy and chemotherapy partners. Anti-EGFR mAb therapy significantly improved both PFS {hazard ratio 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.76]} and OS [hazard ratio 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.99)] for tumors without any RAS mutations. No PFS or OS benefit was evident with use of anti-EGFR mAbs for tumors harboring any RAS mutation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Tumors harboring one of the new RAS mutations are unlikely to significantly benefit from anti-EGFR mAb therapy in mCRC.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)13-21
    Number of pages9
    JournalAnnals of Oncology
    Volume26
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

    Keywords

    • Cetuximab
    • Meta-analysis
    • Panitumumab
    • Pharmacogenomics
    • Predictive biomarker
    • RAS mutation

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