This study aimed to extend the cognitive-behavioral model of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) by exploring the role of insecure attachment and self-ambivalence on the relationship between two specific cognitive factors, namely appearance orientation (seeing the self as an aesthetic object) and appearance evaluation (negative appraisal of internal body image), on levels of BDD severity. A convenience sample of 304 Australian residents (72.4% females) completed online self-report measures; 53% reported clinical or subclinical levels of BDD. Attachment anxiety and self-ambivalence were both associated with BDD severity, as were both cognitive factors. The direct effect of attachment anxiety was no longer significant after controlling for self-ambivalence, appearance orientation and evaluation. However, significant specific indirect effects were found suggesting that individuals who report greater levels of insecure attachment and self-ambivalence exhibit greater appearance orientation and negative appearance evaluation which, in turn, results in higher levels of BDD. The indirect effect through self-ambivalence was strongest suggesting a central role of self in the relationship between attachment anxiety and BDD severity. The current research demonstrates the importance of attachment anxiety and self-ambivalence in the context of BDD and implicates their potential role in treatment; however, further clinical studies are needed.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2023|
- Appearance orientation and evaluation
- Attachment theory
- Body dysmorphia
- Cognitive-behavioral model