Rationale & Objective: The risk of developing colorectal cancer in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is twice that of the general population, but the factors associated with colorectal cancer are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with CKD. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: Patients with CKD stages 3-5, including those treated with maintenance dialysis or transplantation across 11 sites in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Spain, were screened for colorectal neoplasia using a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as part of the Detecting Bowel Cancer in CKD (DETECT) Study. Exposure: Baseline characteristics for patients at the time of study enrollment were ascertained, including duration of CKD, comorbidities, and medications. Outcome: Advanced colorectal neoplasia was identified through a 2-step verification process with colonoscopy following positive FIT and 2-year clinical follow-up for all patients. Analytical Approach: Potential factors associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were performed using grouped LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression. Results: Among 1,706 patients who received FIT-based screening—791 with CKD stages 3-5 not receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT), 418 receiving dialysis, and 497 patients with a functioning kidney transplant—117 patients (6.9%) were detected to have advanced colorectal neoplasia (54 with CKD stages 3-5 without KRT, 34 receiving dialysis, and 29 transplant recipients), including 9 colorectal cancers. The factors found to be associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia included older age (OR per year older, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.07], P < 0.001), male sex (OR, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.45-3.54], P < 0.001), azathioprine use (OR, 2.99 [95% CI, 1.40-6.37], P = 0.005), and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use (OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.22-3.03], P = 0.005). Grouped LASSO logistic regression revealed similar associations between these factors and advanced colorectal neoplasia. Limitations: Unmeasured confounding factors. Conclusions: Older age, male sex, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and azathioprine were found to be significantly associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with CKD.
- bowel cancer
- chronic kidney disease (CKD)
- colorectal cancer
- end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
- fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
- risk factors
- transplant recipient