Purpose: We evaluated quality of life in children with urinary incontinence using a disease specific tool (Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire) and determined factors that decrease quality of life in affected children.
Materials and Methods: The Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire was self-administered by children 6 to16 years old with urinary incontinence while attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Australia between October 2009 and May 2010. A weighted summative quality of life score with a range of 1.75 to 7 (7 being lowest quality of life) was generated, and patient characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, symptom severity) were evaluated as potential predictors.
Results: Of 146 children invited to participate 138 consented (response rate 95%). About half of the participants (77) were boys, and mean patient age was 10 years. Girls had a lower quality of life than boys (mean score 3.60 vs 3.31, 95% CI 0.100.57, p = 0.04), and nonwhite children had a lower quality of life than white children (3.97 vs 3.35, 95% CI 0.230.99, p <0.01). Older age (r = 0.21, p = 0.01) but not increasing symptom severity (r = 0.15, p = 0.09) or underlying chronic disease (difference 0.12, p = 0.91) was correlated to decreased quality of life. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that older age, nonwhite ethnicity and female gender were independent predictors of decreased quality of life.
Conclusions: Older age, female gender and nonwhite ethnicity are associated with a lower disease specific quality of life in children with urinary incontinence. Clinicians need to be aware of the differential effect of urinary incontinence in children of different ages and ethnic backgrounds.
- urinary incontinence
- adverse impacts
- quality of life (QoL)