Background: This review synthesizes contemporary research investigating the factors influencing RNs’ perceptions of their professional identity. Method: The method used was an integrative literature review. Results: Factors influencing RNs’ perceptions of their professional identity were synthesized into three categories: the self, the role, and the context. The self is the nurse who enacts the role in practice, and the context is the practice setting. Poor alignment of these categories leads to stress, tension, and uncertainty affecting workforce retention. Strong alignment leads to satisfaction with the nursing role, increased staff retention, and improved quality of care and patient outcomes. These three categories should be considered when planning nursing professional development activities. Conclusion: This integrative review identified a lack of research addressing how nurses’ perceptions of their professional identity change over time. A deeper understanding of their perspective is needed to establish whether career longevity and continued professional development are influences.