Fate of 1-(1',4'-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil: Route-specific by-product in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine

Raktim Pal, M Megharaj, Kenneth Kirkbride, Ravi Naidu

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We investigated the fate of 1-(1',4'-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil. CMP is the major route-specific byproduct in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) by the use of excess alkali metal (e.g., lithium) in liquid ammonia, which is commonly referred to as the "Nazi method". This is one of the most common methods used in many countries for the illicit production of MAP. Knowledge on the fate of CMP in the terrestrial environment is essential to combat potential threats arising from illegal dumping of clandestine laboratory wastes. We report on the sorption-desorption, degradation, and metabolism patterns of CMP in three South Australian soils investigated in laboratory scale. CMP sorption in the test soils followed a Freundlich isotherm in the concentration range of 5 to 100μgmL -1. Degradation studies showed that CMP was fairly unstable in both non-sterile and sterile soils, with half-life values typically less than one week. The role of biotic and abiotic soil processes in the degradation of CMP also varied significantly between the different soils, and with the length of the incubation period. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the results showed that the CMP was not actually degraded to any simpler compounds but transformed to more persistent MAP. Thus, the main concern with Nazi method is the potential hazard from MAP rather than CMP if wastes are disposed of into the environment.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)394-399
    Number of pages6
    JournalScience of The Total Environment
    Volume416
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012

    Keywords

    • 1-(1',4'-Cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane
    • Biodegradation
    • By-product
    • Illicit drug
    • Methamphetamine
    • Soil

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