Legionella and amebae populations in 16 cooling towers were challenged with three commercially available biocide formulations. The active agents were: a chlorinated phenolic thioether (CPTE), bromo-nitro-propane-diol (BNPD), and bromo-chloro-dimethylhydantoin (BCD, in briquette form). The towers were dosed with these biocides for approximately 4 weeks. BCD was effective against Legionella in each of nine challenge experiments, and CPTE in eight of nine challenges. BNPD was effective in only five of 11 challenges. None of the biocides had any significant effect in reducing planktonic amebae concentrations during the challenges.