Foods contributing to sodium intake and urinary sodium excretion in a group of Australian women

Jennifer Keogh, Kylie Lange, Rebecca Hogarth, Peter Clifton

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    12 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives To identify food sources of Na in a group of community-dwelling women in Adelaide, South Australia. A secondary aim was to measure Na excretion in this group. Design Survey. Setting Community setting, Adelaide, South Australia. Subjects Seventy healthy women (mean age 48·6 (sd 8·1) years, mean BMI 28·6 (sd 6·3) kg/m2) living in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia and participating in a validation study of an FFQ. Dietary intake was derived from two 4 d weighed food records. Foods from the 4 d weighed food records were grouped according to foods or food groups to establish contributors to Na intake. Na excretion was measured in two 24 h urine samples. Completeness of urine collections was verified using creatinine excretion. Results Bread alone contributed 19·0 % of Na intake, with an overall contribution from the breads and cereals group of 32·5 %. Meat products contributed 14·4 % of intake, the dairy and eggs group (excluding cheese) 9·6 % and combination dishes (e.g. pizza, quiche, sandwiches and stir fry dishes) 8·4 %. Na excretion was 126 (sd 42) mmol/d, i.e. approximately 7·6 (sd 2.5) g salt/d. Seventy per cent of participants (n 48) had Na excretion ≥100 mmol/d (146 (sd 34) mmol/d). Conclusions Effective Na reduction could be achieved by reducing the amount in staple foods such as bread and meat products.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1837-1842
    Number of pages6
    JournalPublic Health Nutrition
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


    • Dietary sodium intake
    • Food supply
    • Urinary sodium excretion


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