Forest fire susceptibility prediction based on machine learning models with resampling algorithms on remote sensing data

Bahareh Kalantar, Naonori Ueda, Mohammed O. Idrees, Saeid Janizadeh, Kourosh Ahmadi, Farzin Shabani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This study predicts forest fire susceptibility in Chaloos Rood watershed in Iran using three machine learning (ML) models—multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), support vector machine (SVM), and boosted regression tree (BRT). The study utilizes 14 set of fire predictors derived from vegetation indices, climatic variables, environmental factors, and topographical features. To assess the suitability of the models and estimating the variance and bias of estimation, the training dataset obtained from the Natural Resources Directorate of Mazandaran province was subjected to resampling using cross validation (CV), bootstrap, and optimism bootstrap techniques. Using variance inflation factor (VIF), weight indicating the strength of the spatial relationship of the predictors to fire occurrence was assigned to each contributing variable. Subsequently, the models were trained and validated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) curve. Results of the model validation based on the resampling techniques (non, 5-and 10-fold CV, bootstrap and optimism bootstrap) produced AUC values of 0.78, 0.88, 0.90, 0.86 and 0.83 for the MARS model; 0.82, 0.82, 0.89, 0.87, 0.84 for the SVM and 0.87, 0.90, 0.90, 0.90, 0.91 for the BRT model. Across the individual model, the 10-fold CV performed best in MARS and SVM with AUC values of 0.90 and 0.89. Overall, the BRT outperformed the other models in all ramification with highest AUC value of 0.91 using optimism bootstrap resampling algorithm. Generally, the resampling process enhanced the prediction performance of all the models.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3682
Number of pages24
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2020


  • Bootstrapping
  • Computational intelligence
  • Cross validation (CV)
  • Machine learning
  • Remote sensing


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