Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model

E. V. McCloskey, N. C. Harvey, H. Johansson, M. Lorentzon, E. Liu, L. Vandenput, W. D. Leslie, J. A. Kanis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


The introduction of the FRAX algorithms has facilitated the assessment of fracture risk on the basis of fracture probability. FRAX integrates the influence of several well-validated risk factors for fracture with or without the use of bone mineral density. Since age-specific rates of fracture and death differ across the world, FRAX models are calibrated with regard to the epidemiology of hip fracture (preferably from national sources) and mortality (usually United Nations sources). Models are currently available for 73 nations or territories covering more than 80% of the world population. FRAX has been incorporated into more than 80 guidelines worldwide, although the nature of this application has been heterogeneous. The limitations of FRAX have been extensively reviewed. Arithmetic procedures have been proposed in order to address some of these limitations, which can be applied to conventional FRAX estimates to accommodate knowledge of dose exposure to glucocorticoids, concurrent data on lumbar spine bone mineral density, information on trabecular bone score, hip axis length, falls history, type 2 diabetes, immigration status and recency of prior fracture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-28
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • clinical risk factors
  • fracture probability
  • FRAX
  • intervention thresholds
  • risk assessment


Dive into the research topics of 'Fracture risk assessment by the FRAX model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this