Esophageal cancer is a lethal cancer encompassing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma subtypes. The global incidence of esophageal cancer is increasing world-wide, associated with the increased prevalence of associated risk factors. The asymptomatic nature of disease often leads to late diagnosis and five-year survival rates of less than 15%. Current diagnostic tools are restricted to invasive and costly endoscopy and biopsy for histopathology. Minimally and non-invasive biomarkers of esophageal cancer are needed to facilitate earlier detection and better clinical management of patients. This paper summarises recent insights into the development and clinical validation of esophageal cancer biomarkers, focussing on circulating markers in the blood, and the emerging area of breath and odorant biomarkers.
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- Breath analysis
- Esophageal cancer