Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains the most common leukemia in the Western world. Whilst its disease course is extremely heterogeneous (ranging from indolent to aggressive), current methods are unable to accurately predict the clinical journey of each patient. There is clearly a pressing need for both improved prognostication and treatment options for patients with this disease. Whilst molecular studies have analyzed both genetic mutations and gene expression profiles of these malignant B-cells, and as a result have shed light on the pathogenesis of CLL, proteomic studies have been largely overlooked to date. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the proteomics of CLL, and discusses some of the issues in CLL proteomic research, such as reproducibility and data interpretation. In addition, we look ahead to how proteomics may significantly help in the development of a successful treatment for this currently incurable disease.