Galanin-like immunoreactivity in sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons of the toad Bufo marinus

J. L. Morris, I. L. Gibbins, P. B. Osborne

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    47 Citations (Scopus)


    Immunoreactivity (IR) to galanin (GAL) was detected in a wide range of peripheral autonomic neurons in the toad Bufo marinus. Forty percent of adrenergic nerve cell bodies in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia had GAL-IR in addition to neuropeptide Y (NPY)-IR. Some of these neurons projected to systemic arteries. GAL-IR was localized in parasympathetic neurons supplying the heart, lung, pulmonary artery, bladder, rectum and tongue. Eighty-two percent of intracardiac vagal nerve cell bodies had both GAL-IR and somatostatin (SOM)-IR. GAL-IR and SOM-IR were also co-localized in cholinergic post-ganglionic vagal neurons supplying the lung musculature and the pulmonary artery, and in neurons intrinsic to the bladder. Many postganglionic glossopharyngeal neurons in the tongue contained both GAL-IR and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-IR. Therefore, in Bufo marinus, a GAL-like peptide, in combination with other peptides or with adrenaline or acetylcholine, may be involved in neurotransmission in several different functional classes of autonomic neurons.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)142-148
    Number of pages7
    JournalNeuroscience letters
    Issue number2-3
    Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 1989


    • Amphibian
    • Autonomic neuron
    • Galanin
    • Neuropeptide Y
    • Perivascular axon
    • Somatostatin
    • Vasoactive intestinal peptide


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