Generation and mnemonic encoding induce a minor effect in the DRM paradigm.

Raymond W. Gunter, Glen Bodner, Tanjeem Azad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Encoding tasks that increase memory accuracy are appealing from both practical and theoretical perspectives. Within the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we found that generating list words from anagrams (relative to reading) produced a mirror effect: enhanced recognition of studied words coupled with a reduction in false recognition. Signal detection analyses suggest that the increase in correct recognition was due to enhanced item-specific encoding of the list words, whereas the reduction in false recognition was due to enhanced strategic monitoring at test (i.e., a distinctiveness heuristic), rather than to reduced relational encoding at study. Further support for a distinctiveness heuristic account was obtained using both “theme judgment” instructions and within-group conditions. In our final experiment, we replicated this mirror effect using a purely mnemonic (self-referential) encoding task, showing that extra perceptual cues are not necessary to induce participants to adopt a successful memory-improvement strategy at test.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1092
Number of pages10
JournalMemory and Cognition
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • False Memory
  • False Recognition
  • Correct Recognition
  • Mirror Effect
  • Read Group


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