A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth and immune responses of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated with fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), coconut oil (CO) and beef tallow (BT) as the sources of lipid with five replicates each. Thirty crabs (2.35 ± 0.14 g) were stocked into each tank and fed twice daily. Weight gain and specific growth rate of crab fed the FO diet were significantly lower than those fed other diets (P < 0.05), except for crabs fed LO diet (P < 0.05). Crab fed the SO diet weighed more than those fed FO diets (P < 0.05). Serum superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of crab fed the FO diet were significantly higher than in other groups (P < 0.05). Crab fed the FO diet had the highest activities of serum phenoloxidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme (P < 0.05). The fatty acid composition in the liver of crab reflected the change in test diets. Our results indicate that the use of dietary vegetable or animal oils can achieve similar growth performance to the use of dietary FO in Chinese mitten crab, but non-FOs may impair crab immunity. Soybean oil is recommended as a suitable replacer for FO in Chinese mitten crab diet.