Y-STR haplotype data was obtained using the AmpFlSTR® YFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for 1079 Caucasian and 766 Australian Aboriginal individuals. Haplotype diversity was similar in both populations, however discrimination capacity was higher in Caucasians than Aborigines (0.946 compared to 0.692). Locus DYS385, which was considered as a single locus, was the most diverse marker in both populations (0.836 in Caucasians and 0.905 in Aborigines). Population: The South Australian Aboriginal and Caucasian databases were compiled from casework reference profile information held on the South Australian Criminal, Reference and Evidence DNA Database (SACREDD). Ethnicity was assigned based on self-declaration.