Objectives: To describe rates of hospitalization for head and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among Australian adults aged 15-24 years. Design: Descriptive analysis of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Hospital Morbidity Database, using data from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2006. Results: The rate of hospitalization for head injury was 618.5 per 100 000, with 148.1 per 100 000 being high threat to life injuries. In multivariate analysis, males had 3.2-times the rate of females. Youth and young adults living in remote and very remote areas had a 2.6-3.2-fold greater rate of head injury than city-dwellers and a 2.3-2.7-fold greater rate of injuries that were high threat to life. The rate of TBI was 169.3 per 100 000, with 87.1 per 100 000 being high threat to life injuries. In multivariate analysis, males had 3.2-times the rate of females. Youth and young adults living in very remote and remote areas had a 2.5-3.0-fold greater rate of TBI than city-dwellers and a 2.1-2.3-fold greater rate of high threat to life TBI. Conclusions: Males and youth and young adults living remotely were disproportionately represented among those sustaining head injuries. A quarter of hospitalized head injuries were coded as having TBI.