Healthy Lifestyle and Mortality Among Adults Receiving Hemodialysis: The DIET-HD Study

Guobin Su, Valeria Saglimbene, Germaine Wong, Patrizia Natale, Marinella Ruospo, Jonathan C. Craig, Jorgen Hegbrant, Juan Jesus Carrero, Giovanni F.M. Strippoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale & Objective: A healthy lifestyle promotes cardiovascular health and reduces cardiac-related mortality in the general population, but its benefits for people receiving maintenance hemodialysis are uncertain. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: 5,483 of 9,757 consecutive adults receiving maintenance hemodialysis (January 2014 to June 2017, median dialysis vintage: 3.6 years) in a multinational private dialysis network and with complete lifestyle data. Exposure: Based on the American Heart Association's recommendations for cardiovascular prevention, a modified healthy lifestyle score was the sum of 4 components addressing use of smoking tobacco, physical activity, diet, and control of systolic blood pressure. Outcome: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Analytical Approach: Adjusted proportional hazards regression analyses with country as a random effect to estimate the associations between lifestyle score (low [0-2 points] as the referent, medium [3-5], and high [6-8]) and mortality. Associations were expressed as adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) with 95% CI. Results: During a median of 3.8 years (17,451 person-years in total), there were 2,163 deaths, of which 826 were related to cardiovascular disease. Compared with patients who had a low lifestyle score, the AHRs for all-cause mortality among those with medium and high lifestyle scores were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.85) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.54-0.76), respectively. Compared with patients who had a low lifestyle score, the AHRs for cardiovascular mortality among those with medium and high lifestyle scores were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.91) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.49-0.85), respectively. Limitations: Self-reported lifestyle, data-driven approach. Conclusions: A healthier lifestyle is associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)688-698.e1
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume79
Issue number5
Early online date20 Sep 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • body mass index (BMI)
  • cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • cohort
  • diet
  • DIET-HD
  • end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • hemodialysis
  • lifestyle
  • modifiable risk factor
  • mortality
  • physical activity
  • smoking

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