There are many ways to destroy heritage in conflict. Heritage can be destroyed inadvertently as collateral damage within a conflict zone, or it may be destroyed intentionally, with the aim of weakening culture, religion, social, and political institutions. Heritage can be deliberately targeted legally if taken into military use or it can be simply erased through looting or neglect. This chapter provides a brief history of heritage destruction in conflict, especially in terms of politically and religiously motivated iconoclasm. It takes a human rights-based approach to redressing heritage destruction and discusses some major international measures that have been developed to protect heritage in conflict.