High-amylose resistant starch increases hormones and improves structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract: A microarray study

Michael Keenan, Roy Martin, Anne Raggio, Kathleen McCutcheon, Ian Brown, Anne Birkett, Susan Newman, Jihad Skaf, Maren Hegsted, Richard Tulley, Eric Blair, June Zhou

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    38 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background/Aims: Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is associated with increased fermentation, increased expression of proglucagon (gene for GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) genes in the large intestine, and improved health. To determine what other genes are up- or downregulated with feeding of HAM-RS2, a microarray was performed. Methods: Adult, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of the following three diets for a 4-week study period: cornstarch control (CC, 3.74 kcal/g), dietary energy density control (EC, 3.27 kcal/g), and 30% HAM-RS2 (RS, 3.27 kcal/g). Rat microarray with ∼27,000 genes and validation of 94 representative genes with multiple qPCR were used to determine gene expression in total RNA extracts of cecal cells from rats. The RS versus EC comparison tested effects of fermentation as energy density of the diet was controlled. Results: For the RS versus EC comparison, 86% of the genes were validated from the microarray and the expression indicates promotion of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Gut hormones GLP-1 and PYY were increased. Conclusions: Gene expression results predict improved structure and function of the GI tract. Production of gut hormones may promote healthy functions beyond the GI tract.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)26-44
    Number of pages19
    JournalJournal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
    Volume5
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

    Keywords

    • Cecal cells
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • High-amylose maize
    • Microarray
    • Resistant starch
    • Validation

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    Keenan, M., Martin, R., Raggio, A., McCutcheon, K., Brown, I., Birkett, A., Newman, S., Skaf, J., Hegsted, M., Tulley, R., Blair, E., & Zhou, J. (2012). High-amylose resistant starch increases hormones and improves structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract: A microarray study. Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics, 5(1), 26-44. https://doi.org/10.1159/000335319