High Efficiency Perovskite-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells: Effect of Surface Coating versus Bulk Incorporation of 2D Perovskite

The Duong, Huyen Pham, Teng Choon Kho, Pheng Phang, Kean Chern Fong, Di Yan, Yanting Yin, Jun Peng, Md Arafat Mahmud, Saba Gharibzadeh, Bahram Abdollahi Nejand, Ihteaz M. Hossain, Motiur Rahman Khan, Naeimeh Mozaffari, Yi Liang Wu, Heping Shen, Jianghui Zheng, Haoxin Mai, Wensheng Liang, Chris SamundsettMatthew Stocks, Keith McIntosh, Gunther G. Andersson, Uli Lemmer, Bryce S. Richards, Ulrich W. Paetzold, Anita Ho-Ballie, Yun Liu, Daniel Macdonald, Andrew Blakers, Jennifer Wong-Leung, Thomas White, Klaus Weber, Kylie Catchpole

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Citations (Scopus)


Mixed-dimensional perovskite solar cells combining 3D and 2D perovskites have recently attracted wide interest owing to improved device efficiency and stability. Yet, it remains unclear which method of combining 3D and 2D perovskites works best to obtain a mixed-dimensional system with the advantages of both types. To address this, different strategies of combining 2D perovskites with a 3D perovskite are investigated, namely surface coating and bulk incorporation. It is found that through surface coating with different aliphatic alkylammonium bulky cations, a Ruddlesden–Popper “quasi-2D” perovskite phase is formed on the surface of the 3D perovskite that passivates the surface defects and significantly improves the device performance. In contrast, incorporating those bulky cations into the bulk induces the formation of the pure 2D perovskite phase throughout the bulk of the 3D perovskite, which negatively affects the crystallinity and electronic structure of the 3D perovskite framework and reduces the device performance. Using the surface-coating strategy with n-butylammonium bromide to fabricate semitransparent perovskite cells and combining with silicon cells in four-terminal tandem configuration, 27.7% tandem efficiency with interdigitated back contact silicon bottom cells (size-unmatched) and 26.2% with passivated emitter with rear locally diffused silicon bottom cells is achieved in a 1 cm2 size-matched tandem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1903553
Number of pages15
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • 2D perovskites
  • perovskite solar cells
  • perovskite-silicon tandem
  • surface coating
  • wide bandgap


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