Purpose: To assess the association between a glaucoma polygenic risk score (PRS) and treatment outcomes in primary open-angle glaucoma.
Design: Prospective, observational cohort study.
Participants: Participants from the Progression Risk of Glaucoma: Relevant SNPs with Significant Association Study were divided into a cohort with suspect glaucoma who were treatment naive at enrollment and one with early manifest and suspect glaucoma receiving treatment at enrollment.
Methods: A per-allele weighted glaucoma PRS was calculated for 1107 participants. Multivariable mixed-effects Cox proportional regression analysis assessed the association between PRS and time to commencement of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering therapy in 416 patients with suspect glaucoma who were treatment naive at study enrollment. Secondary analysis evaluated the association between PRS and escalation of IOP-lowering therapy among 691 patients with suspect and early manifest glaucoma who were receiving IOP-lowering therapy at enrollment.
Main Outcome Measures: Commencement or escalation of IOP-lowering therapy.
Results: A higher PRS was associated with a greater risk of commencing IOP-lowering therapy within 5 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45per 1 standard deviation [/SD]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.62; P < 0.001). Participants in the upper population-based quintile showed a 3.3 times greater risk of commencing therapy by 5 years than those in the lowest quintile (HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.63–6,70; P < 0.001) and a 5.4 times greater risk of commencing IOP-lowering therapy by 2 years than the those in the lowest quintile (HR, 5.45; 95% CI, 2.08–14.25; P < 0.001). A higher PRS was associated with a greater risk of treatment escalation among patients receiving treatment at enrollment (HR, 1.19/SD; 95% CI, 1.09–1.31; P < 0.001). In combined analysis of all participants, participants in the top population-based quintile were at 2.3 times greater risk of requiring initiation or escalation of IOP-lowering therapy than those in the lowest quintile (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.75–3.01; P < 0.001).
Conclusions: This study demonstrated novel associations between glaucoma polygenic risk and risk of commencement or escalation of IOP-lowering therapy, building on previous work highlighting the potential clinical usefulness of genetic risk stratification in glaucoma.
- Genetic risk score
- Intraocular pressure
- Open-angle glaucoma