High Shear Thin Film Synthesis of Partially Oxidized Gallium and Indium Composite 2D Sheets

Zoe Gardner, Soraya Rahpeima, Qiang Sun, Jin Zou, Nadim Darwish, Kasturi Vimalanathan, Colin L. Raston

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Reducing resistance in silicon-based devices is important as they get miniaturized further. 2D materials offer an opportunity to increase conductivity whilst reducing size. A scalable, environmentally benign method is developed for preparing partially oxidized gallium/indium sheets down to 10 nm thick from a eutectic melt of the two metals. Exfoliation of the planar/corrugated oxide skin of the melt is achieved using the vortex fluidic device with a variation in composition across the sheets determined using Auger spectroscopy. From an application perspective, the oxidized gallium indium sheets reduce the contact resistance between metals such as platinum and silicon (Si) as a semiconductor. Current‒voltage measurements between a platinum atomic force microscopy tip and a Si−H substrate show that the current switches from being a rectifier to a highly conducting ohmic contact. These characteristics offer new opportunities for controlling Si surface properties at the nanoscale and enable the integration of new materials with Si platforms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300577
Number of pages8
Early online date3 Apr 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Apr 2023


  • 2D materials
  • exfoliation
  • gallium oxide
  • indium
  • thin film microfluidics


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