How repeatable are measures of heterophoria? Implications for clinical practice.

Joanna Black, Bianca Davidson, Bridget Field, Joyce Mathan, Nicola Anstice

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Heterophoria measurement is a common clinical technique used in the diagnosis of binocular vision anomalies, the most common of which is convergence insufficiency (CI). The purpose of this study was to assess the intra- and inter-examiner variability of four clinical tests of heterophoria measurements.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


  • Heterophoria
  • Binocular vision
  • convergence insufficiency (CI)
  • heterophoria measurements
  • Clinical tests


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