Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1), with consequent accumulation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), might explain the increased cardiovascular risk with PPI use. However, uncertainty exists regarding whether clinical PPI concentrations significantly inhibit DDAH1 under linear initial rate conditions, and whether PPI-induced DDAH1 inhibition significantly increases ADMA in humans. DDAH1 inhibition by esomeprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole was determined by quantifying DDAH1-mediated L-citrulline formation in vitro. Plasma ADMA was measured in PPI users (n = 134) and non-users (n = 489) in the Hunter Community Study (HCS). At clinical PPI concentrations (0.1-10 μmol/L), DDAH1 retained >80% activity vs. baseline. A significant, reversible, time-dependent inhibition was observed with lansoprazole (66% activity at 240 min, P = 0.034) and rabeprazole (25% activity at 240 min, P < 0.001). In regression analysis, PPI use was not associated with ADMA in HCS participants (beta 0.012, 95% CI -0.001 to 0.025, P = 0.077). Furthermore, there were no differences in ADMA between specific PPIs (P = 0.748). At clinical concentrations, PPIs are weak, reversible, DDAH1 inhibitors in vitro. The lack of significant associations between PPIs and ADMA in HCS participants questions the significance of DDAH1 inhibition as a mechanism explaining the increased cardiovascular risk reported with PPI use.