Serum prolactin should only be measured in patients with a pituitary mass or the clinical symptoms and signs of hyperprolactinaemia. There are many causes of hyperprolactinaemia, including drugs. It is important to identify the underlying cause to guide appropriate treatment. Hyperprolactinaemia can cause galactorrhoea and impair reproductive function. It can accelerate bone loss if it is associated with sex hormone deficiency. Most prolactinomas are microprolactinomas. They usually do not grow sufficiently to cause hypopituitarism or visual field loss. Patients with a prolactinoma are usually successfully treated with a dopamine agonist such as cabergoline.
- Dopamine agonist