Study Objectives: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) is an effective surgical alternative for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). HNS therapy relies on the stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve to open the upper airways. This stimulation could lead to alterations in tongue strength and fatigability, which could alter treatment outcome over time. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HNS alters tongue strength and fatigability. Methods: Tongue protrusion strength (peak pressure in kPa) and fatigability (time to task failure during 50% of peak pressure contraction) were measured with a pressure transducer at least 2 months after HNS implantation (n = 30). These results were compared to a group of patients with OSA (n = 38) and a non-OSA control group (n = 35). Results: Median tongue protrusion strength was lower (54.7 [43.8, 63.0] versus 60.7 [53.7, 66.0] kPa, P = .013) and fatigue occurred more quickly (21.3 [17.4, 26.3] versus 26.0 [19.3, 31.3] seconds, P = .017) in the patients with OSA compared to the non-OSA control group. In multiple regression analysis, age was a significant factor for tongue strength and diagnosis of OSA for tongue fatigability. Tongue strength and fatigability did not differ between patients with OSA with conservative therapy or observation versus after HNS implantation (51.8 [41.3, 63.4] versus 56.3 [45.0, 62.3] kPa, P =.502; 20.8 [16.3, 26.2] versus 21.8 [18.3, 26.8] seconds, P = .418). Conclusions: Tongue strength decreases with age. Tongue fatigability is more pronounced in people with OSA. However, approximately 1.5 years of HNS therapy on average does not alter tongue strength or fatigability compared to an OSA control group. Clinical Trial Registration: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Change in Tongue Strength and Fatigue After Upper Airway Stimulation Therapy; Identifier: NCT03980158.
- Selective upper airway stimulation
- Sleep-disordered breathing
- Upper airway physiology