Identification of replication-competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines

Karen Sfanos, Amanda Aloia, JL Hicks, DM Esopi, JP Steranka, W Shao, Silvia Sanchez-Martinez, S Yegnasubramanium, KH Burns, Alan Rein, Angelo De Marzo

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    Abstract

    A newly discovered gammaretrovirus, termed XMRV, was recently reported to be present in the prostate cancer cell line CWR22Rv1. Using a combination of both immunohistochemistry with broadly-reactive murine leukemia virus (MLV) anti-sera and PCR, we determined if additional prostate cancer or other cell lines contain XMRV or MLV-related viruses. Our study included a total of 72 cell lines, which included 58 of the 60 human cancer cell lines used in anticancer drug screens and maintained at the NCI-Frederick (NCI-60). We have identified gammaretroviruses in two additional prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC4 and VCaP, and show that these viruses are replication competent. Viral genome sequencing identified the virus in LAPC4 and VCaP as nearly identical to another known xenotropic MLV, Bxv-1. We also identified a gammaretrovirus in the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line EKVX. Prostate cancer cell lines appear to have a propensity for infection with murine gammaretroviruses, and we propose that this may be in part due to cell line establishment by xenograft passage in immunocompromised mice. It is unclear if infection with these viruses is necessary for cell line establishment, or what confounding role they may play in experiments performed with these commonly used lines. Importantly, our results suggest a need for regular screening of cancer cell lines for retroviral "contamination", much like routine mycoplasma testing.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere20874
    Pages (from-to)e20874
    Number of pages6
    JournalPLoS One
    Volume6
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

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  • Cite this

    Sfanos, K., Aloia, A., Hicks, JL., Esopi, DM., Steranka, JP., Shao, W., Sanchez-Martinez, S., Yegnasubramanium, S., Burns, KH., Rein, A., & De Marzo, A. (2011). Identification of replication-competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines. PLoS One, 6(6), e20874. [e20874]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020874