Purpose: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A plays an important role in the metabolism of many clinically used drugs and exhibits substantial between-subject variability (BSV) in activity. Current methods to assess variability in CYP3A activity have limitations and there remains a need for a minimally invasive clinically translatable strategy to define CYP3A activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for a caffeine metabolic ratio to describe variability in CYP3A activity.
Methods: The metabolic ratio 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid (TMU) to caffeine was evaluated as a biomarker to describe variability in CYP3A activity in a cohort (n = 28) of healthy 21 to 35-year-old males. Midazolam, caffeine, and TMU concentrations were assessed at baseline and following dosing of rifampicin (300 mg daily) for 7 days.
Results: At baseline, correlation coefficients for the relationship between apparent oral midazolam clearance (CL/F) with caffeine/TMU ratio measured at 3, 4, and 6 h post dose were 0.82, 0.79, and 0.65, respectively. The strength of correlations was retained post rifampicin dosing; 0.72, 0.87, and 0.82 for the ratios at 3, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Weaker correlations were observed between the change in midazolam CL/F and change in caffeine/TMU ratio post/pre-rifampicin dosing.
Conclusion: BSV in CYP3A activity was well described by caffeine/TMU ratios pre- and post-induction. The caffeine/TMU ratio may be a convenient tool to assess BSV in CYP3A activity, but assessment of caffeine/TMU ratio alone is unlikely to account for all sources of variability in CYP3A activity.
- Between-subject variability
- Precision medicine