Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder o. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized by pain or discomfort fro. The lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit. Despite its prevalence, there is currently a lack of effective treatment options for patients. IBS has long been considered as a neurological condition resulting from alterations i. The brain gut axis, but immunological alterations are increasingly reported in IBS patients, consistent wit. The hypothesis that there is a chronic, but low-grade, immune activation. Mediators released by immune cells act to either dampen or amplif. The activity of GI nerves. Release of a number of these mediators correlates with symptoms of IBS, highlightin. The importance of interactions betwee. The immune an. The nervous systems. Investigation o. The role of microbiota in these interactions is in its early stages, but may provide many answers regardin. The mechanisms underlying activation o. The immune system in IBS. Identifying wha. The key changes i. The GI immune system are in IBS and how these changes modulate viscerosensory nervous function is essential fo. The development of novel therapies fo. The underlying disorder.