Immune checkpoints in rheumatoid arthritis: progress and promise

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most prevalent autoimmune inflammatory conditions, and while the mechanisms driving pathogenesis are yet to be completely elucidated, self-reactive T cells and immune checkpoint pathways have a clear role. In this review, we provide an overview of the importance of checkpoint pathways in the T cell response and describe the involvement of these in RA development and progression. We discuss the relationship between immune checkpoint therapy in cancer and autoimmune adverse events, draw parallels with the involvement of immune checkpoints in RA pathobiology, summarise emerging research into some of the lesser-known pathways, and the potential of targeting checkpoint-related pathways in future treatment approaches to RA management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1285554
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2023


  • co-stimulatory pathways
  • CTLA-4
  • immune checkpoints
  • PD-1
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • T cells


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