Background and aim: Tryptophan (Trp) degradation via indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), with consequent increased in kynurenine (Kyn) concentrations, has been proposed as marker of immune system activation. Oxidative stress (OS) might contribute to the pro-inflammatory state in chronic kidney disease (CKD) through the activation of NF-kB, with consequent activation and recruitment of immune cells. Methods and results: Serum concentrations of Trp and Kyn, oxidative stress indices malondialdehyde (MDA) and allantoin/uric acid (All/UA) ratio and anti-oxidant amino acid taurine were measured in 30 CKD patients randomized to 40mg/day simvastatin (group 1), ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20mg/day (group 2) or ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40mg/day (group 3) and treated for 12 months. Baseline Kyn and Kyn/Trp ratio were higher in CKD patients vs. healthy controls (1.67 ± 0.62μmol/L vs 1.25 ± 0.40μmol/L, p < 0.01 and 0.036 ± 0.016 vs 0.023 ± 0.010, p < 0.001 respectively). Both Kyn and Kyn/Trp ratio significantly decreased after cholesterol lowering treatment, to values comparable with healthy controls after one year treatment (1.67 ± 0.62μmol/L vs 1.31 ± 0.51μmol/L, p < 0.0001 and 0.036 ± 0.016 vs 0.028 ± 0.012 p < 0.0001, respectively). This was paralleled by a significant decrease in MDA (218 ± 143nmol/L vs 176 ± 123nmol/L, p < 0.01) and All/UA ratio (1.47 ± 0.72 vs 1.19 ± 0.51, p < 0.01) in CKD patients. Conclusions: Amelioration of both oxidative and inflammation status after cholesterol lowering treatment in CKD might be mediated by restoration of antioxidant taurine concentrations during therapy (from 51.1 ± 13.3μmol/L at baseline to 63.1 ± 16.4μmol/L, p < 0.001 by ANOVA), suggesting that improvement of both oxidative and inflammation status in CKD patients could be explained, at least partly, by the cholesterol lowering effects.
- Chronic kidney disease
- Oxidative stress