Impact of cholesterol lowering treatment on plasma kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations in chronic kidney disease: Relationship with oxidative stress improvement

A. Zinellu, S. Sotgia, A. A. Mangoni, M. Sanna, A. E. Satta, C. Carru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and aim: Tryptophan (Trp) degradation via indoleamine (2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO), with consequent increased in kynurenine (Kyn) concentrations, has been proposed as marker of immune system activation. Oxidative stress (OS) might contribute to the pro-inflammatory state in chronic kidney disease (CKD) through the activation of NF-kB, with consequent activation and recruitment of immune cells. Methods and results: Serum concentrations of Trp and Kyn, oxidative stress indices malondialdehyde (MDA) and allantoin/uric acid (All/UA) ratio and anti-oxidant amino acid taurine were measured in 30 CKD patients randomized to 40mg/day simvastatin (group 1), ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20mg/day (group 2) or ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40mg/day (group 3) and treated for 12 months. Baseline Kyn and Kyn/Trp ratio were higher in CKD patients vs. healthy controls (1.67 ± 0.62μmol/L vs 1.25 ± 0.40μmol/L, p < 0.01 and 0.036 ± 0.016 vs 0.023 ± 0.010, p < 0.001 respectively). Both Kyn and Kyn/Trp ratio significantly decreased after cholesterol lowering treatment, to values comparable with healthy controls after one year treatment (1.67 ± 0.62μmol/L vs 1.31 ± 0.51μmol/L, p < 0.0001 and 0.036 ± 0.016 vs 0.028 ± 0.012 p < 0.0001, respectively). This was paralleled by a significant decrease in MDA (218 ± 143nmol/L vs 176 ± 123nmol/L, p < 0.01) and All/UA ratio (1.47 ± 0.72 vs 1.19 ± 0.51, p < 0.01) in CKD patients. Conclusions: Amelioration of both oxidative and inflammation status after cholesterol lowering treatment in CKD might be mediated by restoration of antioxidant taurine concentrations during therapy (from 51.1 ± 13.3μmol/L at baseline to 63.1 ± 16.4μmol/L, p < 0.001 by ANOVA), suggesting that improvement of both oxidative and inflammation status in CKD patients could be explained, at least partly, by the cholesterol lowering effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-159
Number of pages7
JournalNutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2015

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • CKD
  • IDO
  • Inflammation
  • Kyn
  • Kynurenine
  • OS
  • Oxidative stress
  • Trp
  • Tryptophan

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