Improved mixing of high rate algal ponds

E. Mihalyfalvy, H. T. Johnston, M. K. Garrett, H. J. Fallowfield, N. J. Cromar

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

9 Citations (Scopus)


High rate algal pond systems (HRAP) are suitable for the treatment of settled domestic sewage. They combine the advantages of simplicity, low cost and ability to remove BOD-through oxygen produced by algal photosynthesis-and also phosphorus, the rate limiting nutrient in eutrophication of most surface fresh waters (Fallowfield and Garrett, 1985a). Using new research results on the biology and chemistry of the system a special flow pattern was introduced to improve the efficiency of the HRAP waste treatment method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1334-1337
Number of pages4
JournalWater Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • High rate algal ponds
  • Mixing
  • Secondary flow
  • Wastewater treatment


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