Dimensional engineering of perovskite solar cells has attracted significant research attention recently because of the potential to improve both device performance and stability. Here, a novel 2D passivation scheme for 3D perovskite solar cells is demonstrated using a mixed cation composition of 2D perovskite based on two different isomers of butylammonium iodide. The dual-cation 2D perovskite outperforms its single cation 2D counterparts in surface passivation quality, resulting in devices with an impressive open-circuit voltage of 1.21 V for a perovskite composition with an optical bandgap of ≈1.6 eV, and a champion efficiency of 23.27%. Using a combination of surface elemental analysis and valence electron spectra decomposition, it is shown that an in situ interaction between the 2D perovskite precursor and the 3D active layer results in surface intermixing of 3D and 2D perovskite phases, providing an effective combination of defect passivation and enhanced charge transfer, despite the semi-insulating nature of the 2D perovskite phase. The demonstration of the synergistic interaction of multiple organic spacer cations in a 2D passivation layer offers new opportunities for further enhancement of device performance with mixed dimensional perovskite solar cells.
- dual-isomer alkylammonium cation
- mixed dimensional perovskite
- solar cells
- surface intermixing