In vitro degradation of ziprasidone in human whole blood

Jared W. Castle, Danielle M. Butzbach, G. Stewart Walker, Claire E. Lenehan, Frank Reith, Samuel P. Costello, K. Paul Kirkbride

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A systematic study was performed into the degradation of ziprasidone in simulated postmortem blood. Fifteen potential degradation products not previously reported in the literature were observed. Four resulted from degradation in human blood, whereas the remaining products resulted from reaction with solvents: four from alkaline degradation, four from reaction with acetaldehyde, and three from reaction with acetone. To identify possible degradation products, a liquid chromatograph-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and liquid chromatograph quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF-MS) operating in auto-MS/MS mode were used. It was indicated from red-shifted UV–Vis spectra, accurate mass data, mass fragmentation data, and a deuteration experiment that the site of ziprasidone degradation, in the in vitro blood experiments, was the methylene carbon of the oxindole moiety. The major in vitro blood degradation products were proposed to be E/Z isomers of 3-ethylidene-ziprasidone. Further, another in vitro degradation product in microbially inoculated blood specimens was proposed to be 3-ethyl-ziprasidone. 3-Ethylidene-ziprasidone was hypothesized to form from the reaction of ziprasidone with acetaldehyde derived from the ethanol used to spike ziprasidone into the in vitro blood experiments. Data from two postmortem investigations were available for retrospective reanalysis. Attempts were made to detect degradation products of ziprasidone, but none were found.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-234
Number of pages15
JournalDrug Testing and Analysis
Issue number2
Early online date21 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • degradation
  • postmortem toxicology
  • stability
  • ziprasidone


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