1. The metabolism of the anti-inflammatory diterpenoid polyandric acid A (PAA), a constituent of the Australian Aboriginal medicinal plant Dodonaea polyandra, and its de-esterified alcohol metabolite, hydrolysed polyandric acid A (PAAH) was studied in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. 2. Hydrolysis of PAA to yield PAAH occurred upon incubation with HLM. Further incubations of PAAH with HLM in the presence of UGT and CYP cofactors resulted in significant depletion, with UGT-mediated depletion as the major pathway. 3. Reaction phenotyping utilising selective enzyme inhibitors and recombinant human UGT and CYP enzymes revealed UGT2B7 and UGT1A1, and CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 as the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of PAAH. 4. Analysis of incubations of PAAH with UDP-glucuronic acid-supplemented HLM and recombinant enzymes by UPLC/MS/MS identified three glucuronide metabolites. The metabolites were further characterised by β-glucuronidase and mild alkaline hydrolysis. The acyl glucuronide of PAAH was shown to be the major metabolite. 5. This study demonstrates the in vitro metabolism of PAA and PAAH and represents the first systematic study of the metabolism of an active constituent of an Australian Aboriginal medicinal plant.