During alcoholic fermentation of grape sugars, wine yeasts produce a range of secondary metabolites that play an important role in the aroma profile of wines. In this study, we have explored the ability of a large number of wine yeast strains to modulate wine aroma composition, focusing on the release of the "fruity" thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3-MH) and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4-MMP) from their respective cysteinylated nonvolatile precursors. The role of the yeast gene IRC7 in thiol release has been well established, and it has been shown that a 38-bp deletion found in many wine strains cause them to express a truncated version of Irc7p that does not possess cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase activity. In our data, we find that IRC7 allele length alone does not fully explain the capacity of a strain to release thiols. Screening of a large number of strains coupled with analysis of genomic sequence data allowed us to identify several previously undescribed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRC7 that, when coupled with allele length, more robustly explain the ability of a particular yeast strain to release thiols from their cysteinylated precursors. We also demonstrate that allelic variation of IRC7 not only affects the release of thiols but modulates the formation of negative volatile sulfur compounds from the amino acid cysteine. The results of this study provide winemakers with an improved understanding of the genetic determinants that affect wine aroma and flavor, which can be used to guide the choice of yeast strains that are fit for purpose.