Cancer risk is increased substantially in adult kidney transplant recipients, but the long-term risk of cancer in childhood recipients is unclear. Using the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, the authors compared overall and site-specific incidences of cancer after transplantation in childhood recipients with population-based data by using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Among 1734 childhood recipients (median age 14 years, 57% male, 85% white), 289 (16.7%) developed cancer (196 nonmelanoma skin cancers, 143 nonskin cancers) over a median follow-up of 13.4 years. The 25-year cumulative incidences of any cancer were 27% (95% confidence intervals 24–30%), 20% (17–23%) for nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 14% (12–17%) for nonskin cancer (including melanoma). The SIR for nonskin cancer was 8.23 (95% CI 6.92–9.73), with the highest risk for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (SIR 45.80, 95% CI 32.71–62.44) and cervical cancer (29.4, 95% CI 17.5–46.5). Increasing age at transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] per year 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14), white race (aHR 3.36, 95% CI 1.61–6.79), and having a functioning transplant (aHR 2.27, 95% CI 1.47–3.71) were risk factors for cancer. Cancer risk, particularly for virus-related cancers, is increased substantially after kidney transplantation during childhood.