Incidence of hip fracture in Saudi Arabia and the development of a FRAX model

Yousef A.L. Saleh, Riad A. Sulimani, Shaker Alomary, Yassmeen I. Alnajjar, Liesbeth Vandenput, Enwu Liu, Mattias Lorentzon, Nicholas C. Harvey, Eugene V. McCloskey, Helena Johansson, John A. Kanis, Saudi FRAX Study Group

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Summary: A prospective hospital-based survey in representative regions of Saudi Arabia determined the incidence of fractures at the hip. The hip fracture rates were used to create a FRAX® model to facilitate fracture risk assessment in Saudi Arabia. Objective: This paper describes the incidence of hip fracture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that was used to characterize the current and future burden of hip fracture, to develop a country-specific FRAX® tool for fracture prediction and to compare fracture probabilities with neighbouring countries. Methods: During a 2-year (2017/2018) prospective survey in 15 hospitals with a defined catchment population, hip fractures in Saudi citizens were prospectively identified from hospital registers. The number of hip fractures and future burden was determined from national demography. Age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fracture and national mortality rates were incorporated into a FRAX model for Saudi Arabia. Fracture probabilities were compared with those from Kuwait and Abu Dhabi. Results: The incidence of hip fracture applied nationally suggested that the estimated number of hip fractures nationwide in persons over the age of 50 years for 2015 was 2,949 and is predicted to increase nearly sevenfold to 20,328 in 2050. Hip fracture rates were comparable with estimates from Abu Dhabi and Kuwait. By contrast, probabilities of a major osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture from the age of 70 years were much lower than those seen in Abu Dhabi and Kuwait due to higher mortality estimates for Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: A country-specific FRAX tool for fracture prediction has been developed for Saudi Arabia which is expected to help guide decisions about treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number56
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of osteoporosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Fracture probability
  • FRAX
  • Hip fracture
  • Osteoporosis epidemiology
  • Saudi Arabia


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