Warm ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury of the liver is associated with changes in the expression and/or post-translational modification of numerous proteins. Only a few of these have been identified. We used 2-D DIGE to identify cytosolic proteins altered in the early stage of IR in an established rat model of segmental hepatic ischemia. Proteins in 18 abundant spots altered by IR were identified by LC-MS/MS and Western blot. Many identified proteins were enzymes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Isoamyl acetate-hydrolysing esterase 1 homolog, not previously characterized in liver, was also identified. A threefold increase in peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and its oxidized forms was observed as was an increase in Prx1 mRNA. Peroxiredoxins and their overoxidation have previously been associated with IR. In contrast to other studies, we did not detect typical overoxidation of Prx1 on the peroxidatic cysteine (Cys 52). Instead, we identified novel overoxidation of the resolving cysteine (Cys 173) residue by LC-MS/MS. Our results show that a rapid increase in Prx1 expression is associated with the early phase of IR of the liver, likely contributing to mechanisms that protect the liver against IR damage. Additionally, we have revealed a potential role in liver for a novel lipid-metabolizing enzyme.