Influence of Aqueous Phase Composition on Double Emulsion Stability and Colour Retention of Encapsulated Anthocyanins

Damien A. Sebben, Stephanie V. MacWilliams, Long Yu, Patrick T. Spicer, Vincent Bulone, Marta Krasowska, David A. Beattie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)


Water‐in‐oil‐in‐water (W1/O/W2) emulsions (double emulsions) have often been used for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Instability of both anthocyanins and double emulsions creates a need for a tailored composition of the aqueous phase. In this work, double emulsions with a gelled internal water phase were produced and monitored over a 20‐day storage period. The effect of the electrolyte phase composition (varying electrolyte components, in-cluding adipic acid, citric acid, and varying concentration of potassium chloride (KCl)) on anthocy-anin and double emulsion stability was analysed using colour analysis, droplet sizing, and emulsion rheology. The effect of electrolytes on colour retention was shown to differ between the pri-mary W1/O emulsion and the secondary W1/O/W2 emulsion. Furthermore, droplet size analysis and emulsion rheology highlighted significant differences in the stability and structural behaviour of the emulsions as a function of electrolyte composition. In terms of colour retention and emulsion stability, a citrate‐buffered system performed best. The results of this study highlight the im-portance of strict control of aqueous phase constituents to prevent anthocyanin degradation and maximise double emulsion stability. Additional experiments analysed the effect of pectin chemistry on the anthocyanin colour retention and leakage, finding no conclusive difference between the un-modified and amidated pectin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number34
Number of pages18
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Anthocyanins
  • Double emulsion stability
  • Electrolyte composition
  • Encapsulation
  • Gelation
  • Pectin


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