Inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated tramadol O-demethylation in methadone but not buprenorphine maintenance patients

Janet Coller, Jennifer Michalakas, Heather James, Aaron Farquharson, Joel Colvill, Jason White, Andrew Somogyi

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    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    AIMS To compare the O- (CYP2D6 mediated) and N- (CYP3A4 mediated) demethylation metabolism of tramadol between methadone and buprenorphine maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Nine methadone and seven buprenorphine maintained subjects received a single 100mg dose of tramadol hydrochloride. Blood was collected at 4h and assayed for tramadol, methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine (where appropriate) and all urine over 4h was assayed for tramadol and its M1 and M2 metabolites. RESULTS The urinary metabolic ratio [median (range)] for O-demethylation (M1) was significantly lower (P= 0.0002, probability score 1.0) in the subjects taking methadone [0.071 (0.012-0.103)] compared with those taking buprenorphine [0.192 (0.108-0.392)], but there was no significant difference (P= 0.21, probability score 0.69) in N-demethylation (M2). The percentage of dose [median (range)] recovered as M1 was significantly lower in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.069 (0.044-0.093) and 0.126 (0.069-0.187), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.19), M2 was significantly higher in subjects taking methadone compared with buprenorphine (0.048 (0.033-0.085) and 0.033 (0.014-0.049), respectively, P= 0.04, probability score 0.81). Tramadol was similar (0.901 (0.635-1.30) and 0.685 (0.347-1.04), respectively, P= 0.35, probability score 0.65). CONCLUSIONS Methadone inhibited the CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of tramadol to M1. Hence, as the degree of opioid analgesia is largely dependent on M1 formation, methadone maintenance patients may not receive adequate analgesia from oral tramadol.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)835-841
    Number of pages7
    JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
    Volume74
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

    Keywords

    • Buprenorphine
    • CYP2D6 inhibition
    • In vivo
    • Methadone
    • Tramadol metabolism

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