Innovation in Technology development with reference to enzymatic extraction of flavonoids.

Munish Puri, Madan Verma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Bioactive compounds such as vitamin C, carotene (β-carotene), “avonoids, limonoids, essential oil, acridone alkaloids, œbers, minerals, vitamin B, and other related nutrients such as thiamine, ribo“avin, nicotinic acid/niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, and so on are present in citrus fruits (Benavente-Garcia et al., 1997; Hamdan et al., 2011). Of all the “avonoids, “avanone glycosides (polymethoxy “avones) present in citrus have a constructive in“uence on human health. In addition, these compounds seek scientiœc attention because of their physiological and pharmacological beneœts. Flavonoids are a large group of phenolic bioactives that are found in a range of plant-derived foods, mainly in citrus peel, skin of grapes, and epidermis of tea leaves (Denny and Buttriss, 2007). Flavonoids have a unique structure based on three phenyl rings, A, B, and C, as shown in Figure 20.1 where ring B may bind to position 3 at fused ring C to form iso“avonone (Bohm, 2006). Variations in substitution pattern to ring C in the structure of these compounds result in the major “avonoid classes: “avonols (found in onions, e.g., quercetin), “avones (found in parsley/ celery, e.g., apigenin), “avanones (found abundantly in citrus fruits, e.g., naringin and hesperitin), iso“avones (leguminous plants such as soybean, e.g., genestein), “avanols (found in tea/apple/apricot, e.g., catechins), and anthocynadins (found in blackcurrants/blueberries, e.g., cyanidins). The biological effects of “avonoids depend on their chemical structure. The position of hydroxyl groups (OH) and other features are important for antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging effects (Hosseinimehr, 2010; Martins et al., 2011).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInnovation in Healthy and Functional Foods
EditorsDilip Ghosh, Shantanu Das, Debasis Bagchi, R.B. Smarta
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781439862698
ISBN (Print)9781439862674
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


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