Insomnia disorder (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder with proposed subtypes based on objective sleep duration. We speculated that insomnia subtyping with additional power spectral analysis and measurement of response to acute sleep restriction may be informative in overall assessment of ID. To explore alternative classifications of ID subtypes, insomnia patients (n = 99) underwent two consecutive overnight sleep studies: (i) habitual sleep opportunity (polysomnography, PSG) and, (ii) two hours less sleep opportunity (electroencephalography, EEG), with the first night compared to healthy controls (n = 25). ID subtypes were derived from data-driven classification of PSG, EEG spectral power and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry index. Three insomnia subtypes with different sleep duration and NREM spectral power were identified. One subtype (n = 26) had shorter sleep duration and lower NREM delta power than healthy controls (short-sleep delta-deficient; SSDD), the second subtype (n = 51) had normal sleep duration but lower NREM delta power than healthy controls (normal-sleep delta-deficient; NSDD) and a third subtype showed (n = 22) no difference in sleep duration or delta power from healthy controls (normal neurophysiological sleep; NNS). Acute sleep restriction improved multiple objective sleep measures across all insomnia subtypes including increased delta power in SSDD and NSDD, and improvements in subjective sleep quality for SSDD (p = 0.03), with a trend observed for NSDD (p = 0.057). These exploratory results suggest evidence of novel neurophysiological insomnia subtypes that may inform sleep state misperception in ID and with further research, may provide pathways for personalised care.
- electroencephalography (EEG)
- Sleep disorders