Inter-Individual Variability in Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score and VO2max Changes Following Personalized, Community-Based Exercise Programming

Sophie Seward, Joyce Ramos, Claire Drummond, Angela Dalleck, Bryant R. Byrd, Mackenzie Kehmeier, Lance Dalleck

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6 Citations (Scopus)
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This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a personalized, community-based exercise program at reducing MetS severity and consequently Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. One-hundred and fifty physically inactive participants (aged 18–83 years) were randomized to a non-exercise control group (n = 75; instructed to continue their usual lifestyle habits) or treatment group (n = 75). Participants randomized to the treatment group completed a 12 week personalized exercise training program based on the American Council on Exercise (ACE) Integrated Fitness Training (IFT) model guidelines. Z-scores were derived from levels of metabolic syndrome risk factors to determine the severity of MetS (MetS z-score). After 12 weeks, the treatment group showed a significant favorable change in MetS z-score, whereas the control group demonstrated increased severity of the syndrome (between-group difference, p < 0.05). The proportion of MetS z-score responders (Δ > −0.48) was greater following the exercise intervention (71%, 50/70) compared to control (10%, 7/72) (between group difference, p < 0.001). The inter-individual variability in VO2max change also showed a similar trend. These findings provide critical translational evidence demonstrating that personalized exercise programming based upon the ACE IFT model guidelines can be successfully implemented within the community setting to reduce T2DM and CVD risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4855
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number23
Early online date25 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • Cardiovascular disease risk
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Responders
  • Training responsiveness


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