International standards for programmes of training in intensive care medicine in Europe

Allison Bullock, Jude Wilde, Julian Bion, Lambertus Schuwirth

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    29 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: To develop internationally harmonised standards for programmes of training in intensive care medicine (ICM). Methods: Standards were developed by using consensus techniques. A nine-member nominal group of European intensive care experts developed a preliminary set of standards. These were revised and refined through a modified Delphi process involving 28 European national coordinators representing national training organisations using a combination of moderated discussion meetings, email, and a Web-based tool for determining the level of agreement with each proposed standard, and whether the standard could be achieved in the respondent's country. Results: The nominal group developed an initial set of 52 possible standards which underwent four iterations to achieve maximal consensus. All national coordinators approved a final set of 29 standards in four domains: training centres, training programmes, selection of trainees, and trainers' profiles. Only three standards were considered immediately achievable by all countries, demonstrating a willingness to aspire to quality rather than merely setting a minimum level. Nine proposed standards which did not achieve full consensus were identified as potential candidates for future review. Conclusions: This preliminary set of clearly defined and agreed standards provides a transparent framework for assuring the quality of training programmes, and a foundation for international harmonisation and quality improvement of training in ICM.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)385-393
    Number of pages9
    JournalIntensive Care Medicine
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


    • Accreditation
    • CoBaTrICE
    • Critical care
    • Intensive care
    • Quality assurance
    • Standards
    • Training


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