Intraduodenal protein modulates antropyloroduodenal motility, hormone release, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in lean men

Amy Ryan, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Asimina Kallas, Judith Wishart, Peter Clifton, Michael Horowitz, Natalie Luscombe-Marsh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    68 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Intraduodenal fat and carbohydrate modulate antropyloroduodenal motility and hormone release and suppress appetite and energy intake in a load-dependent manner. Protein also suppresses energy intake, but its effects on these gastrointestinal factors and their role in the appetite-suppressive effects of protein remain unclear. Objective: We aimed to characterize the effects of different intraduodenal protein loads on antropyloroduodenal pressures, gastrointestinal hormone release, glucose and insulin concentrations, appetite perceptions, and energy intake. Design: Sixteen lean, healthy men were studied on 4 occasions in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin, peptide YY, ghrelin, blood glucose, serum insulin, and appetite were measured during 60-min, 4-mL/min intraduodenal infusions of protein at 0.5, 1.5, or 3 kcal/min or saline (control). Energy intakes at a buffet lunch consumed immediately after the infusion were quantified. Results: Increases in the load of protein resulted in greater suppression of antral motility, greater stimulation of basal and isolated pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin and GLP-1 concentrations, and greater suppression of energy intake. However, energy intake was reduced only after a protein load of 3 kcal/min compared with after all other treatments (P < 0.05). The suppression of energy intake after adjustment for cholecystokinin, GLP-1, and insulin was related inversely with basal pyloric pressure (r = 20.51, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The acute effects of intraduodenal protein on antropyloroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone release, glucose, and insulin are load dependent and contribute to the suppression of energy intake. This trial was registered at as 12610000376044.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)474-482
    Number of pages9
    JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2012


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